Elements of the zero period of the Periodic Table of Mendeleev
On the nature of Newton and the Crown
On the nature of Newton and the Crown
"... The more I had to think about the nature of the chemical elements, the more I deviated from both the classical notion of primary matter, and the hope to achieve the desired comprehension of the elements of nature study of electrical and optical phenomena, and each time more urgently and more clearly aware that the earlier order or first must get more real than the present one, the notion of "mass" and the «aether»
In January 1904, "a piece of St. Petersburg» № 5 on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of Mendeleev published his portrait and interview. When asked what he was doing research at the present time, the scientist replied, "They are designed solely to confirm I have exhibited in the past year, theory, or rather the attempt of understanding the world of chemical aether». What is the theory, which we know so little about and which were fixed only all the latest research scientist?
Article, "Trying to understand the chemical world aether" DI Mendeleev graduated in October 1902 and published in January 1903, № 1-4 "Bulletin of the self and the library" and often talked about it, so in May 1904 wrote letters to famous scientist S. Newcomb, which refers to his work on the world aether, where the question of the nature of the aether. Reports that in the near future is going to write an article "about the complexities of modern ideas about chemical elements and of electrons ...." On the complexity of the chemical elements and electrons - it is clear to the modern reader, but ... the world aether ...?! Today, even schoolchildren know that this idea was discarded by modern science. In addition, the chemical understanding in relation to the world aether! Strange? Yes! So, probably one of the last works of the scientist is rarely commented upon, almost never mentioned, but it is generally difficult to find! In many scientific and educational libraries in multi-volume "Collected Works" DI Mendeeleeva missing items 2, where is "Trying to understand the chemical world aether». Sometimes it seems that somehow embarrassed trying to black out this "curious" work from the legacy of a scientist! Many people seem to think condescendingly, that the great Mendeleyev in his old age, perhaps, exceeded their competence.
But let's not jump to conclusions! And there age? This "embarrassing" the theory of Mendeleev nursed almost all of his creative life. He was not yet 40 years old when the periodic system, two years after its opening (a reprint of "Fundamentals of Chemistry", which is stored in the archive scientist), his arm around the character of hydrogen is an inscription which can be decoded as follows: "all the easier aether, in millions time ". Apparently, «aether» Mendeleev presented the lightest chemical element! Again: a chemical element aether-element aether-atomic discreteness of the aether-aether. What kind of classic sense of aether are we talking about? This is not the aether, which is discarded as an unnecessary crutch of modern physics.
Open the dictionaries and encyclopedias.
aether (Greek - αἰθήρ aithēr), also spelled æther or ether - hypothetical material medium filling the space). The concept of E. was taken from the ancient philosophers, who regarded him as a kind of "first mother" and identified him with the space. In classical physics, by E. understood, uniform, mechanical, elastic medium which fills the Newtonian absolute space.
Might find a slightly different definition, but note that everywhere the emphasis will be on the uniformity or continuity. Is this aether at the Mendeleev? This is not a classical aether! aether, which says Mendeleev, consists of the elements, it atomic, it is heterogeneous, it is discontinuous and discrete. It has a structure!
Learning more dictionaries and encyclopedias.
This mechanistic concept (classical aether) broke and experimental verification has been abandoned in the theory of relativity. Representation of E. replaced in modern physics the idea of a material having a structure of a field or a vacuum can not be reduced to a mechanical environment.
Can not you see that the aether, the chemical structure of which is trying to consider D. Mendeleyev is more of a modern vacuum Dirac aether than the classic Greeks! More interesting? More more! Let's go back to the work of Mendeleev, as they say, to the source!
Interest in this problem appeared in Mendeleev's already in the 70s: it is closely connected with the periodic system ("it, and excited in me"), and subsequent work on the study of gases. It was the discovery of chemically inert gases and the logical place them in the zero group of the periodic system made for a real opportunity to evaluate the academic chemistry world aether. In the discovery of the law scholar tries to explain the nature of the physical side of weight as the main characteristics of the substance. What is the physical basis of gravity, which is closely related to the concept of the world aether as a transmission medium, it looks for the easiest item (much lighter than hydrogen). However, the results of the experiments the 70-ies, is reduced to proving that «aether is the sum of rarefied gases," did not meet the periodic table. At the end of life in search of answers to questions concerning the underlying properties of matter, he again turned to the "world aether», by which tries to penetrate into the nature of the basic concept of science in XIX .- masses, as well as to explain the new discoveries, and above all the radioactivity. The main idea of the scientist is as follows: "Real understanding aether can not be achieved by ignoring it and apart from the chemistry of its elementary substance; elementary substance is now unthinkable without subjecting them to periodic law."
Describing the world aether, Mendeleev considers his "first, the lightest of all elements of both the density and atomic weight, and secondly, The fastest moving gas, and third, the least able to form with any other atoms or particles certain how a strong connection and, fourthly, an element common and pervasive everywhere. " Atom's weight of this hypothetical element x, by the scientists, can range 6.9 to 5.3 * 10-7 * 10-11 (if the atomic weight of H is 1). Element x (Mendeleev called it "Newton") received a place in the periodic system in a zero-zero period of as super analogue of inert gases. In addition, Mendeleev admitted the existence of another element lighter than hydrogen - an element y, «crown" (line "crown" were recorded during a solar eclipse in 1869 in the spectrum of the corona, the discovery of helium on earth gave grounds to consider the real and the existence of a "crown") . However, Mendeleev repeatedly emphasized the hypothetical nature of x and y, and did not include them in the table of the elements of the 7th and 8th editions of "Foundations of Chemistry".
Scientific rigor and accountability in the work of Mendeleev's no need to comment! But, as we see, if it requires the search logic, he boldly advanced the most unusual of the hypothesis, based on deep intuition. It should be recalled that in their predictions of new elements to this Mendeleev was right! All the predictions he made on the basis of the periodic law (the existence of 12 unknown elements at the time), and fixes the atomic masses of elements brilliantly confirmed!
In the early XX century, not only Mendeleev, but many physicists and chemists believed in the existence of «aether». However, after the creation of Albert Einstein's special and general theories of relativity, this belief was to fade. It is believed that by the 1930s the problem of «aether» no longer existed in science, but a question about the elements lighter than hydrogen itself disappeared. But again, it should be recalled that the issue was no longer the classical aether, aether homogeneous, but structured aether (aether Mendeleev) very much alive, only now it's called a structural vacuum or vacuum Dirac! So the only question of terminology! Returning to the elements lighter than hydrogen. They say that they have not found! Or maybe just not looking? Or rather, when found, simply did not know it!
Any chemist known homologous series, and is well known that the behavior of the first members, especially the first. As you know the former is always special. He always stands out strongly from the total number. Hydrogen and placed in I and in Group VII. So hydrogen does not the first! So how have these different first elements, the elements of the zero period, from all the other common elements? Will they even look at familiar and well known to us, and I want to say "native" chemical elements? Here sneaks strong doubt! It looks like we will get a completely different "world", and it seems that it is a world of elementary particles! We often talk about the fundamental nature of the Periodic Law, but it seems that it truly did not understand! Repeat the Mendeleev: "... the same substance elementary now unthinkable without subjecting them to periodic law" or "the essence of the concepts that cause the periodic law, lies in the overall physicochemical early match, transformability and the equivalence of the forces of nature," yet "seems to be a periodic law - the future is not threatened with destruction, but only the superstructure and the development promises. " Well, it seems, were inspired and it's time to look, what's all the same to the Hydrogen! Go ahead! Next! Or rather, back? Dmitry Ivanovich believes in us!
"... Then I hope for the future. Understand the same as that found me, and generally it is important to understand the whole nature and infinitely small ... "
Mendeleyev in the last years of his life
Follow the same logic, Dmitry Ivanovich, but take into account the present knowledge, which in his time simply did not exist.
First, we take as a basis for the serial number of the element that corresponds to the nuclear charge, the truth known to all students from Grade 9.
Then, if the hydrogen is serial number 1, the element in front of him, of course, 0! This element is in the zero period in a group of inert gases. Formal analogue of the noble gases, inert core with a formal charge 0.
Consider the possible candidates for a place in the periodic table. The choice of a not very large, but most importantly it is! Of the currently known physical objects is a microcosm: a neutron or a neutrino (photon as having no rest mass and derive the unstable particles until the brackets). Who prefer long refrain. Formally, we are satisfied and a neutron and a neutrino! Proceed until the next element to hydrogen, is also an element of the zero period, but already among the first group of analog and hydrogen. But his formal order number -1! And the same nuclear charge! The total charge the same as all the elements must be zero. And in this place in the periodic table is a legitimate candidate! It is well known to physicists and radiochemist Positronium! By the way, he actually looks like a very cool predicted by Mendeleev "crown" and it could be observed in stars like the Sun and others, especially the hotter! So, Positronium (Ps), we recall that a system consisting of an electron and a positron meet the formal requirements of the first element of the zero period. The fact that it is difficult to distinguish where the kernel, and where the shell, let us not confuse, as we expected in fact, that elements of the zero period will be extraordinary! Also, just because of the symmetry of the positronium in the future will reveal a whole new perspective of the periodic system! But let's not get ahead!
Let us return to the element with atomic number zero. Who is the neutron or neutrino? Who is more in keeping with Newton's Mendeleev?
Before you make a choice, let's consider one fact which should not be ignored. For ease of review we have proposed as candidates for the zero position of the neutron and neutrino, but this is just the elementary particles, and all other elements are complex systems where there are opposite charges as Coulomb, and others (particles and antiparticles - the electron and positron) . Therefore, obeying the law of conservation of charge, under the neutrinos will mean a pair of neutrinos and antineutrinos, and a pair of neutron-neutron and antineutron! It follows that nothing should be chosen! They both suit us, and moreover they have the isotopic ratio, they differ only by one baryonic charge! They just do the isotopes! Just as, for example, hydrogen and deuterium. But what of those isotopes is still spoken Mendeleev? It's all clear, of course, Newton is the neutrinos! We must remember the properties of Newton's extremely light weight and virtually complete inactivity in conjunction with other substances!
"Extremely low density gas, ie, extreme rapidity of the proper motion of its particles - with a negligible weight of them should have a say in that this gas will penetrate everywhere, will fill the universe, but to anything not firmly adjoin - for coherent motion in a chemical compound that is he did not connect with anything. "
All this corresponds to a pair of neutrinos and antineutrinos, neutrinos (00Nn)! And the extraordinary speed of its own motion - near the speed of light, and little weight - about 10-9, which corresponds to the prediction of Mendeleev (10-7 - 10-11), there comes through, with virtually nothing it does not interact (the Earth and the sun even for a transparent ), and fills the entire universe (the mass of neutrinos in the universe is at least 30 times greater than the density of ordinary matter)!
In general, it is not clear how could our world view of the universe does without the Neutrino Newton! Neutrons (n0Nn) as one of the most common in the universe (the substance of neutron stars and black holes)! To share the same classic chemical elements have only a small fraction of the mass of the universe! All classic chemical relative to the neutrino and neutron is like foam on the shore of the sea to the very seas! Only with elements of the zero period of the periodic system gets its logical conclusion, unless you consider its mirror reflection with respect to zero again, the period in which all the others looked through Antielementy, ie chemical elements Antiworld! Now, it is hoped that Dmitry Ivanovich would be pleased!